In any criminal case other than most infractions, where the potential for jail or prison time exists, a defendant has the right to be represented by an attorney. In criminal infraction cases, a defendant also has the right to a lawyer if he or she is arrested and NOT released on his or her written notice to appear, on his or her own recognizance, or after a deposit of bail. The reason is that a criminal proceeding is complicated, and the consequences, besides incarceration (jail or prison time), can be severe. For example, a conviction can result in deportation for noncitizens or prevent a legal resident alien from becoming a citizen.
Certain convictions can prevent persons from holding many types of jobs. Experienced criminal defense attorneys, whether they are for private hire, serve as public defenders, or are appointed by the court, know about the criminal justice system — how it works, which options are available to a defendant, and what the likely outcomes of different options are. Whenever possible, get the help of an experienced criminal defense attorney when you are charged with a crime.